:: by Yatsuka Nakamura

::

:: Received June 16, 1998

:: Copyright (c) 1998-2012 Association of Mizar Users

begin

Lm1: 2 -' 1 = 2 - 1 by XREAL_1:233

.= 1 ;

Lm2: for i, j, k being Element of NAT st i -' k <= j holds

i <= j + k

proof end;

Lm3: for i, j, k being Element of NAT st j + k <= i holds

k <= i -' j

proof end;

theorem Th1: :: JORDAN7:1

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve holds

( W-min P in Lower_Arc P & E-max P in Lower_Arc P & W-min P in Upper_Arc P & E-max P in Upper_Arc P )

( W-min P in Lower_Arc P & E-max P in Lower_Arc P & W-min P in Upper_Arc P & E-max P in Upper_Arc P )

proof end;

theorem Th2: :: JORDAN7:2

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q, W-min P,P holds

q = W-min P

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q, W-min P,P holds

q = W-min P

proof end;

theorem Th3: :: JORDAN7:3

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q in P holds

LE W-min P,q,P

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q in P holds

LE W-min P,q,P

proof end;

definition

let P be non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2);

let q1, q2 be Point of (TOP-REAL 2);

coherence

( ( q2 <> W-min P implies { p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } is Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) ) & ( not q2 <> W-min P implies { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } is Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) ) );

consistency

for b_{1} being Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) holds verum;

end;
let q1, q2 be Point of (TOP-REAL 2);

func Segment (q1,q2,P) -> Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) equals :Def1: :: JORDAN7:def 1

{ p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } if q2 <> W-min P

otherwise { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } ;

correctness { p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } if q2 <> W-min P

otherwise { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } ;

coherence

( ( q2 <> W-min P implies { p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } is Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) ) & ( not q2 <> W-min P implies { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } is Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) ) );

consistency

for b

proof end;

:: deftheorem Def1 defines Segment JORDAN7:def 1 :

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) holds

( ( q2 <> W-min P implies Segment (q1,q2,P) = { p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } ) & ( not q2 <> W-min P implies Segment (q1,q2,P) = { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } ) );

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) holds

( ( q2 <> W-min P implies Segment (q1,q2,P) = { p where p is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p,P & LE p,q2,P ) } ) & ( not q2 <> W-min P implies Segment (q1,q2,P) = { p1 where p1 is Point of (TOP-REAL 2) : ( LE q1,p1,P or ( q1 in P & p1 = W-min P ) ) } ) );

theorem :: JORDAN7:4

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve holds

( Segment ((W-min P),(E-max P),P) = Upper_Arc P & Segment ((E-max P),(W-min P),P) = Lower_Arc P )

( Segment ((W-min P),(E-max P),P) = Upper_Arc P & Segment ((E-max P),(W-min P),P) = Lower_Arc P )

proof end;

theorem Th5: :: JORDAN7:5

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P holds

( q1 in P & q2 in P )

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P holds

( q1 in P & q2 in P )

proof end;

theorem Th6: :: JORDAN7:6

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P holds

( q1 in Segment (q1,q2,P) & q2 in Segment (q1,q2,P) )

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P holds

( q1 in Segment (q1,q2,P) & q2 in Segment (q1,q2,P) )

proof end;

theorem Th7: :: JORDAN7:7

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st q1 in P & P is being_simple_closed_curve holds

q1 in Segment (q1,(W-min P),P)

for q1 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st q1 in P & P is being_simple_closed_curve holds

q1 in Segment (q1,(W-min P),P)

proof end;

theorem :: JORDAN7:8

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q in P & q <> W-min P holds

Segment (q,q,P) = {q}

for q being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q in P & q <> W-min P holds

Segment (q,q,P) = {q}

proof end;

theorem :: JORDAN7:9

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> W-min P holds

not W-min P in Segment (q1,q2,P)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> W-min P holds

not W-min P in Segment (q1,q2,P)

proof end;

theorem Th10: :: JORDAN7:10

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2, q3 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & ( not q1 = q2 or not q1 = W-min P ) & ( not q2 = q3 or not q2 = W-min P ) holds

(Segment (q1,q2,P)) /\ (Segment (q2,q3,P)) = {q2}

for q1, q2, q3 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & ( not q1 = q2 or not q1 = W-min P ) & ( not q2 = q3 or not q2 = W-min P ) holds

(Segment (q1,q2,P)) /\ (Segment (q2,q3,P)) = {q2}

proof end;

theorem Th11: :: JORDAN7:11

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> W-min P holds

(Segment (q1,q2,P)) /\ (Segment (q2,(W-min P),P)) = {q2}

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> W-min P holds

(Segment (q1,q2,P)) /\ (Segment (q2,(W-min P),P)) = {q2}

proof end;

theorem Th12: :: JORDAN7:12

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & q1 <> q2 & q1 <> W-min P holds

(Segment (q2,(W-min P),P)) /\ (Segment ((W-min P),q1,P)) = {(W-min P)}

for q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & q1 <> q2 & q1 <> W-min P holds

(Segment (q2,(W-min P),P)) /\ (Segment ((W-min P),q1,P)) = {(W-min P)}

proof end;

theorem Th13: :: JORDAN7:13

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2, q3, q4 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & LE q3,q4,P & q1 <> q2 & q2 <> q3 holds

Segment (q1,q2,P) misses Segment (q3,q4,P)

for q1, q2, q3, q4 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & LE q3,q4,P & q1 <> q2 & q2 <> q3 holds

Segment (q1,q2,P) misses Segment (q3,q4,P)

proof end;

theorem Th14: :: JORDAN7:14

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for q1, q2, q3 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> q3 holds

Segment (q1,q2,P) misses Segment (q3,(W-min P),P)

for q1, q2, q3 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st P is being_simple_closed_curve & LE q1,q2,P & LE q2,q3,P & q1 <> W-min P & q2 <> q3 holds

Segment (q1,q2,P) misses Segment (q3,(W-min P),P)

proof end;

begin

theorem Th15: :: JORDAN7:15

for n being Element of NAT

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL n)

for f being Function of I[01],((TOP-REAL n) | P) st f is being_homeomorphism holds

ex g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL n) st

( f = g & g is continuous & g is one-to-one )

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL n)

for f being Function of I[01],((TOP-REAL n) | P) st f is being_homeomorphism holds

ex g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL n) st

( f = g & g is continuous & g is one-to-one )

proof end;

theorem Th16: :: JORDAN7:16

for n being Element of NAT

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL n)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL n) st g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P holds

ex f being Function of I[01],((TOP-REAL n) | P) st

( f = g & f is being_homeomorphism )

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL n)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL n) st g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P holds

ex f being Function of I[01],((TOP-REAL n) | P) st

( f = g & f is being_homeomorphism )

proof end;

Lm4: now :: thesis: for h2 being Element of NAT holds (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2

let h2 be Element of NAT ; :: thesis: (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2

h2 < h2 + 1 by NAT_1:13;

then A1: h2 - 1 < (h2 + 1) - 1 by XREAL_1:9;

then (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2 - 1 by XREAL_1:9;

hence (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2 by A1, XXREAL_0:2; :: thesis: verum

end;
h2 < h2 + 1 by NAT_1:13;

then A1: h2 - 1 < (h2 + 1) - 1 by XREAL_1:9;

then (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2 - 1 by XREAL_1:9;

hence (h2 - 1) - 1 < h2 by A1, XXREAL_0:2; :: thesis: verum

Lm5: 0 in [.0,1.]

by XXREAL_1:1;

Lm6: 1 in [.0,1.]

by XXREAL_1:1;

theorem Th17: :: JORDAN7:17

for A being Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for p1, p2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st A is_an_arc_of p1,p2 holds

ex g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2) st

( g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = A & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 )

for p1, p2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2) st A is_an_arc_of p1,p2 holds

ex g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2) st

( g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = A & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 )

proof end;

theorem Th18: :: JORDAN7:18

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for p1, p2, q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2)

for s1, s2 being Real st P is_an_arc_of p1,p2 & g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 & g . s1 = q1 & 0 <= s1 & s1 <= 1 & g . s2 = q2 & 0 <= s2 & s2 <= 1 & s1 <= s2 holds

LE q1,q2,P,p1,p2

for p1, p2, q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2)

for s1, s2 being Real st P is_an_arc_of p1,p2 & g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 & g . s1 = q1 & 0 <= s1 & s1 <= 1 & g . s2 = q2 & 0 <= s2 & s2 <= 1 & s1 <= s2 holds

LE q1,q2,P,p1,p2

proof end;

theorem Th19: :: JORDAN7:19

for P being non empty Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for p1, p2, q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2)

for s1, s2 being Real st g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 & g . s1 = q1 & 0 <= s1 & s1 <= 1 & g . s2 = q2 & 0 <= s2 & s2 <= 1 & LE q1,q2,P,p1,p2 holds

s1 <= s2

for p1, p2, q1, q2 being Point of (TOP-REAL 2)

for g being Function of I[01],(TOP-REAL 2)

for s1, s2 being Real st g is continuous & g is one-to-one & rng g = P & g . 0 = p1 & g . 1 = p2 & g . s1 = q1 & 0 <= s1 & s1 <= 1 & g . s2 = q2 & 0 <= s2 & s2 <= 1 & LE q1,q2,P,p1,p2 holds

s1 <= s2

proof end;

theorem :: JORDAN7:20

for P being non empty compact Subset of (TOP-REAL 2)

for e being Real st P is being_simple_closed_curve & e > 0 holds

ex h being FinSequence of the carrier of (TOP-REAL 2) st

( h . 1 = W-min P & h is one-to-one & 8 <= len h & rng h c= P & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i < len h holds

LE h /. i,h /. (i + 1),P ) & ( for i being Element of NAT

for W being Subset of (Euclid 2) st 1 <= i & i < len h & W = Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) holds

diameter W < e ) & ( for W being Subset of (Euclid 2) st W = Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P) holds

diameter W < e ) & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i + 1 < len h holds

(Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. (i + 1)),(h /. (i + 2)),P)) = {(h /. (i + 1))} ) & (Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. 1),(h /. 2),P)) = {(h /. 1)} & (Segment ((h /. ((len h) -' 1)),(h /. (len h)),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P)) = {(h /. (len h))} & Segment ((h /. ((len h) -' 1)),(h /. (len h)),P) misses Segment ((h /. 1),(h /. 2),P) & ( for i, j being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i < j & j < len h & not i,j are_adjacent1 holds

Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) misses Segment ((h /. j),(h /. (j + 1)),P) ) & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 < i & i + 1 < len h holds

Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P) misses Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) ) )

for e being Real st P is being_simple_closed_curve & e > 0 holds

ex h being FinSequence of the carrier of (TOP-REAL 2) st

( h . 1 = W-min P & h is one-to-one & 8 <= len h & rng h c= P & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i < len h holds

LE h /. i,h /. (i + 1),P ) & ( for i being Element of NAT

for W being Subset of (Euclid 2) st 1 <= i & i < len h & W = Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) holds

diameter W < e ) & ( for W being Subset of (Euclid 2) st W = Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P) holds

diameter W < e ) & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i + 1 < len h holds

(Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. (i + 1)),(h /. (i + 2)),P)) = {(h /. (i + 1))} ) & (Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. 1),(h /. 2),P)) = {(h /. 1)} & (Segment ((h /. ((len h) -' 1)),(h /. (len h)),P)) /\ (Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P)) = {(h /. (len h))} & Segment ((h /. ((len h) -' 1)),(h /. (len h)),P) misses Segment ((h /. 1),(h /. 2),P) & ( for i, j being Element of NAT st 1 <= i & i < j & j < len h & not i,j are_adjacent1 holds

Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) misses Segment ((h /. j),(h /. (j + 1)),P) ) & ( for i being Element of NAT st 1 < i & i + 1 < len h holds

Segment ((h /. (len h)),(h /. 1),P) misses Segment ((h /. i),(h /. (i + 1)),P) ) )

proof end;